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Table of contents
CONTENTS
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-4
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-5
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-6
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-7
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-8
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-9
ANALYSIS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-10
FOOTNOTES
LOVE AND PAIN-1.1
LOVE AND PAIN-1.2
LOVE AND PAIN-1.3
LOVE AND PAIN-1.4
LOVE AND PAIN-1.5
LOVE AND PAIN-1.6
LOVE AND PAIN-2.1
LOVE AND PAIN-2.2
LOVE AND PAIN-2.3
LOVE AND PAIN-2.4
LOVE AND PAIN-3.1
LOVE AND PAIN-3.2
LOVE AND PAIN-3.3
LOVE AND PAIN-3.4
LOVE AND PAIN-4
LOVE AND PAIN-5.1
LOVE AND PAIN-5.2
LOVE AND PAIN-6.1
LOVE AND PAIN-6.2
LOVE AND PAIN-7
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.1
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.2
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.3
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.4
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.5
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-1.6
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-2.1
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-2.2
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-2.3
THE SEXUAL IMPULSE IN WOMEN-3
APPENDIX A-1
APPENDIX A-2-3
APPENDIX B HISTORY-1
APPENDIX B HISTORY-2
APPENDIX B HISTORY-3-4-5-6-7
APPENDIX B HISTORY-8-9-10
APPENDIX B HISTORY-11-12
APPENDIX B HISTORY-13
APPENDIX B HISTORY-14-15
APPENDIX B HISTORY-16
APPENDIX B HISTORY-17
APPENDIX B HISTORY-18
APPENDIX B HISTORY-19
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Wallace opposed Darwin's theory of sexual selection, but it can scarcely 

be said that his attitude toward it bears critical examination. On the one 

hand, as has already been noted, he saw but one side of that theory and 

that the unessential side, and, on the other hand, his own view really 

coincided with the more essential elements in Darwin's theory. In his 

_Tropical Nature_ he admitted that the male's "persistency and energy win 

the day," and also that this "vigor and liveliness" of the male are 

usually associated with intense coloration, while twenty years later (in 

his _Darwinism_) he admitted also that it is highly probable that the 

female is pleased or excited by the male's display. But all that is really 

essential in Darwin's theory is involved, directly or indirectly, in these 

admissions. 

 

Espinas, in 1878, in his suggestive book, _Des Societes Animales_, 

described the odors, colors and forms, sounds, games, parades, and mock 

battles of animals, approaching the subject in a somewhat more 

psychological spirit than either Darwin or Wallace, and he somewhat more 

clearly apprehended the object of these phenomena in producing mutual 

excitement and stimulating tumescence. He noted the significance of the 

action of the hermaphroditic snails in inserting their darts into each 

other's flesh near the vulva in order to cause preliminary excitation. He 

remarks of this whole group of phenomena: "It is the preliminary of sexual 

union, it constitutes the first act of it. By it the image of the male is 

graven on the consciousness of the female, and in a manner impregnates it, 

so as to determine there, as the effects of this representation descend to 

the depths of the organism, the physiological modifications necessary to 

fecundation." Beaunis, again, in an analysis of the sexual sensations, was 

inclined to think that the dances and parades of the male are solely 

intended to excite the female, not perceiving, however, that they at the 

same time serve to further excite the male also.[24] 

 

A better and more comprehensive statement was reached by Tillier, who, to 

some extent, may be said to have anticipated Groos. Darwin, Tillier 

pointed out, had not sufficiently taken into account the coexistence of 

combat and courtship, nor the order of the phenomena. Courtship without 

combat, Tillier argued, is rare; "there is a normal coexistence of combat 

and courtship."[25] Moreover, he proceeded, force is the chief factor in 

determining the possession of the female by the male, who in some species 

is even prepared to exert force on her; so that the female has little 

opportunity of sexual selection, though she is always present at these 

combats. He then emphasized the significant fact that courtship takes 

place long after pairing has ceased, and the question of selection thus 

been eliminated. The object of courtship, he concluded, is not sexual 

selection by the female, but the sexual excitement of both male and 

female, such excitement, he asserted, not only rendering coupling easier, 

but favoring fecundation. Modesty, also, Tillier further argued, again 

anticipating Groos, works toward the same end; it renders the male more 

ardent, and by retarding coupling may also increase the secretions of the 

sexual glands and favor the chances of reproduction.[26] 

 

In a charming volume entitled _The Naturalist in La Plata_ (1892) 

Mr. W.H. Hudson included a remarkable chapter on "Music and 

Dancing in Nature." In this chapter he described many of the 

dances, songs, and love-antics of birds, but regarded all such 

phenomena as merely "periodical fits of gladness." While, 

however, we may quite well agree with Mr. Hudson that conscious 

sexual gratification on the part of the female is not the cause 

of music and dancing performances in birds, nor of the brighter 

colors and ornaments that distinguish the male, such an opinion 

by no means excludes the conclusion that these phenomena are 


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