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no diminution is produced, but a more or less durable increase, exactly as
though there had been an agreeable excitation. Moreover, the stimulus
which appears painful in a state of repose loses that painful character
either partially or completely when acting on the same subject in a more
and more fatigued state." Fere defines a painful stimulus as a strong
excitation which causes displays of energy which the will cannot utilize;
when, as a result of diminished sensibility, the excitants are attenuated,
the will can utilize them, and so there is no pain. These experiments
had no reference to the sexual instinct, but it will be seen at once that
they have an extremely significant bearing on the subject before us, for
they show us the mechanism of the process by which in an abnormal organism
pain becomes a sexual stimulant.
 Erasmus Darwin, _Zooenomia_, vol. i, p. 496.
 K. Groos, _Spiele der Menschen_, pp. 200-210.
 Hirn, _Origins of Art_, p. 54. Reference may here perhaps be made to
the fact that unpleasant memories persist in women more than in men
(_American Journal of Psychology_, 1899, p. 244). This had already been
pointed out by Coleridge. "It is a remark that I have made many times," we
find it said in one of his fragments (_Anima Poetae_, p. 89), "and many
times, I guess, shall repeat, that women are infinitely fonder of clinging
to and beating about, hanging upon and keeping up, and reluctantly letting
fall any doleful or painful or unpleasant subject, than men of the same
class and rank."
 Groos, _Spiele der Thiere_, p. 251. Maeder (_Jahrbuch fuer
Psychoanalytische Forschungen_, 1909, vol. i, p. 149) mentions an
epileptic girl of 22 who masturbates when she is in a rage with anyone.
 Krafft-Ebing, _Psychopathia Sexualis_, English translation of tenth
edition, p. 78.
 Stanley Hall, "A Study of Anger," _American Journal of Psychology_,
July, 1899, p. 549.
 Krafft-Ebing refers to such a case as recorded by Schulz,
_Psychopathia Sexualis_, p. 78.
 Fere, _L'Instinct sexuel_, p. 213.
 C.F. von Schlichtegroll, _Sacher-Masoch und der Masochismus_, p. 31.
 _Archivio di Psichiatria_, vol. xv, p. 120. Mention may also be made
of the cases (described as hysterical mixoscopia by Kiernan, _Alienist and
Neurologist_, May, 1903) in which young women address to themselves
anonymous letters of an abusive and disgusting character, and show them to
 Stanley Hall, loc. cit., p. 587.
 _Archives de Neurologie_, Oct., 1907.
 G. Stanley Hall, "A Study of Fears," _American Journal of
Psychology_, vol. viii, No. 2.
 A. Cullerre, "De l'Excitation Sexuelle dans les Psychopathies
Anxieuses," _Archives de Neurologie_, Feb., 1905.
 L. Gurlitt (_Die Neue Generation_, July, 1909). Moll (_Sexualleben
des Kindes_, p. 84) also give examples of the connection between anxiety
and sexual excitement. Freud (_Der Wahn und die Traueme in Jensen's
Gradiva_, p. 52) considers that in dream-interpretation we may replace
"terror" by "sexual excitement." In noting the general sexual effects of
fear, we need not strictly separate the group of cases in which the sexual
effects are physical only, and fail to be circuited through the brain.
 See the article on "Neurasthenia" by Rudolf Arndt in Tuke's
_Dictionary of Psychological Medicine_.
 Lunier, _Annales Medico-psychologiques_, 1849, p. 153.
 Fere, _Comptes-rendus de la Societe de Biologie_, December 15 and
22, 1900; id., _Annee Psychologique_, seventh year, 1901, pp. 82-129; more
especially the same author's _Travail et Plaisir_, 1904.
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