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 E. Duehren, _Der Marquis de Sade und Seine Zeit_, third edition, 1901,
 See, for instance, Bloch's _Beitraege zur AEtiologie der Psychopathia
Sexualis_, part ii, p. 178.
 Krafft-Ebing, _Psychopathia Sexualis_, English translation of tenth
German edition, p. 115. Stefanowsky, who also discussed this condition
(_Archives de l'Anthropologie Criminelle_, May, 1892, and translation,
with notes by Kiernan, _Alienist and Neurologist_, Oct., 1892), termed it
 _Anatomy of Melancholy_, part iii, section 2, mem. iii, subs, 1.
 "Aristoteles als Masochist," _Geschlecht und Gesellschaft_, Bd. ii,
 _Die Kontraere Sexualempfindung_, third edition, p. 277. Cf. C.F. von
Schlichtegroll, _Sacher-Masoch und der Masochismus_, p. 120.
 See C.F. von Schlichtegroll, loc. cit., p. 124 et seq.
 Iwan Bloch considers that it is the commonest of all sexual
perversions, more prevalent even than homosexuality.
 It has no doubt been prominent in earlier civilization. A very
pronounced masochist utterance may be found in an ancient Egyptian
love-song written about 1200 B.C.: "Oh! were I made her porter, I should
cause her to be wrathful with me. Then when I did but hear her voice, the
voice of her anger, a child shall I be for fear." (Wiedemann, _Popular
Literature in Ancient Egypt_, p. 9.) The activity and independence of the
Egyptian women at the time may well have offered many opportunities to the
ancient Egyptian masochist.
 Colin Scott, "Sex and Art," _American Journal of Psychology_, vol.
vii, No. 2, p. 208.
 It must not be supposed that the attraction of fur or of the whip is
altogether accounted for by such a casual early experience as in
Sacher-Masoch's case served to evoke it. The whip we shall have to
consider briefly later on. The fascination exerted by fur, whether
manifesting itself as love or fear, would appear to be very common in many
children, and almost instinctive. Stanley Hall, in his "Study of Fears"
(_American Journal of Psychology_, vol. viii, p. 213) has obtained as many
as 111 well-developed cases of fear of fur, or, as he terms it,
doraphobia, in some cases appearing as early as the age of 6 months, and
he gives many examples. He remarks that the love of fur is still more
common, and concludes that "both this love and fear are so strong and
instinctive that they can hardly be fully accounted for without recourse
to a time when association with animals was far closer than now, or
perhaps when our remote ancestors were hairy." (Cf. "Erotic Symbolism,"
iv, in the fifth volume of these _Studies_.)
 Fere, _L'Instinct Sexuel_, p. 138.
 Schrenck-Notzing, _Zeitschrift fuer Hypnotismus_, Bd. ix, ht. 2, 1899.
 Eulenburg, _Sadismus und Masochismus_, second edition, 1911, p. 5.
 I have elsewhere dealt with this point in discussing the special
emotional tone of red (Havelock Ellis, "The Psychology of Red," _Popular
Science Monthly_, August and September, 1900).
 It is probable that the motive of sexual murders is nearly always to
shed blood, and not to cause death. Leppmann (_Bulletin Internationale de
Droit Penal_, vol. vi, 1896, p. 115) points out that such murders are
generally produced by wounds in the neck or mutilation of the abdomen,
never by wounds of the head. T. Claye Shaw, who terms the lust for blood
hemothymia, has written an interesting and suggestive paper ("A Prominent
Motive in Murder," _Lancet_, June 19, 1909) on the natural fascination of
blood. Blumroeder, in 1830, seems to have been the first who definitely
called attention to the connection between lust and blood.
 Fere, _Revue de Chirurgie_, March 10, 1905.
 H. Coutagne, "Cas de Perversion Sanguinaire de l'Instinct Sexuel,"
_Annales Medico-Psychologiques_, July and August, 1893. D.S. Booth
(_Alienist and Neurologist_, Aug., 1906) describes the case of a man of
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