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impulse to close and complete contact with a companion, with a secondary
more or less clearly defined thought of conquest." Groos (_Spiele der
Menschen_, 1899, p. 232) also thinks there is more or less truth in this
suggestion of a subconscious sexual element in the playful wrestling
combats of boys. Freud considers (_Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie_,
p. 49) that the tendency to sexual excitement through muscular activity in
wrestling, etc., is one of the roots of sadism. I have been told of normal
men who feel a conscious pleasure of this kind when lifted in games, as
may happen, for instance, in football. It may be added that in some parts
of the world the suitor has to throw the girl in a wrestling-bout in order
to secure her hand.
 A minor manifestation of this tendency, appearing even in quite
normal and well-conditioned individuals, is the impulse among boys at and
after puberty to take pleasure in persecuting and hurting lower animals or
their own young companions. Some youths display a diabolical enjoyment and
ingenuity in torturing sensitive juniors, and even a boy who is otherwise
kindly and considerate may find enjoyment in deliberately mutilating a
frog. In some cases, in boys and youths who have no true sadistic impulse
and are not usually cruel, this infliction of torture on a lower animal
produces an erection, though not necessarily any pleasant sexual
 Marro, _La Puberta_, 1898, p. 223; Garnier, "La Criminalite
Juvenile," _Comptes-rendus Congres Internationale d'Anthropologie
Criminelle_, Amsterdam, 1901, p. 296; _Archivio di Psichiatria_, 1899,
fasc. v-vi, p. 572.
 Bk. ii, ch. ii.
 Herbert Spencer, _Principles of Sociology_, 1876, vol. i, p. 651.
 Westermarck, _Human Marriage_, p. 388. Grosse is of the same opinion;
he considers also that the mock-capture is often an imitation, due to
admiration, of real capture; he does not believe that the latter has ever
been a form of marriage recognized by custom and law, but only "an
occasional and punishable act of violence." (_Die Formen der Familie_, pp.
105-7.) This position is too extreme.
 Ernest Crawley, _The Mystic Rose_, 1902, p. 350 et seq. Van Gennep
rightly remarks that we cannot correctly say that the woman is abducted
from "her sex," but only from her "sexual society."
 A. Van Gennep (_Rites de Passage_, 1909, pp. 175-186) has put forward
a third theory, though also of a psychological character, according to
which the "capture" is a rite indicating the separation of the young girl
from the special societies of her childhood. Gennep regards this rite as
one of a vast group of "rites of passage," which come into action whenever
a person changes his social or natural environment.
 Fere (_L'Instinct Sexuel_, p. 133) appears to regard the
satisfaction, based on the sentiment of personal power, which may be
experienced in the suffering and subjection of a victim as an adequate
explanation of the association of pain with love. This I can scarcely
admit. It is a factor in the emotional attitude, but when it only exists
in the sexual sphere it is reasonable to base this attitude largely on the
still more fundamental biological attitude of the male toward the female
in the process of courtship. Fere regards this biological element as
merely a superficial analogy, on the ground that an act of cruelty may
become an equivalent of coitus. But a sexual perversion is quite commonly
constituted by the selection and magnification of a single moment in the
normal sexual process.
 The process may, however, be quite conscious. Thus, a correspondent
tells me that he not only finds sexual pleasure in cruelty toward the
woman he loves, but that he regards this as an essential element. He is
convinced that it gives the woman pleasure, and that it is possible to
distinguish by gesture, inflection of voice, etc., an hysterical, assumed,
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