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it originated at the sight of the suffering of _others_; there is
an abundant, superabundant enjoyment even in one's own suffering,
in causing one's own suffering." The element of paradox
disappears from this statement if we realize that it is not a
question of "cruelty," but of the dynamics of pain.
Camille Bos in a suggestive essay ("Du Plaisir de la Douleur,"
_Revue Philosophique_, July, 1902) finds the explanation of the
mystery in that complexity of the phenomena to which I have
already referred. Both pain and pleasure are complex feelings,
the resultant of various components, and we name that resultant
in accordance with the nature of the strongest component. "Thus
we give to a complexus a name which strictly belongs only to one
of its factors, _and in pain all is not painful_." When pain
becomes a desired end Camille Bos regards the desire as due to
three causes: (1) the pain contrasts with and revives a pleasure
which custom threatens to dull; (2) the pain by preceding the
pleasure accentuates the positive character of the latter; (3)
pain momentarily raises the lowered level of sensibility and
restores to the organism for a brief period the faculty of
enjoyment it had lost.
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