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expression in the popular name _papo_ given to women's genital organs.
'Papo' is the crop of birds, and is derived from 'papar' (Latin,
_papare_), to eat soft food such as we call pap. With this representation
of infantile food is connected the term _leche_ [milk] as applied to the
ejaculated genital fluid." Cleland, it may be added, in the most
remarkable of English erotic novels, _The Memoirs of Fanny Hill_, refers
to "the compressive exsuction with which the sensitive mechanism of that
part [the vagina] thirstily draws and drains the nipple of Love," and
proceeds to compare it to the action of the child at the breast. It
appears that, in some parts of the animal world at least, there is a real
analogy of formation between the oral and vaginal ends of the trunk. This
is notably the case in some insects, and the point has been elaborately
discussed by Walter Wesche, "The Genitalia of Both the Sexes in Diptera,
and their Relation to the Armature of the Mouth," _Transactions of the
Linnean Society_, second series, vol. ix, Zooelogy, 1906.
 Naecke now expresses himself very dubiously on the point; see, e.g.,
_Archiv fuer Kriminal-Anthropologie_, 1905, p. 186.
 _Untersuchungen ueber die Libido Sexualis_, Berlin, 1897-98.
 Moll adopts the term "impulse of detumescence" (_Detumescenztrieb_)
instead of "impulse of ejaculation," because in women there is either no
ejaculation or it cannot be regarded as essential.
 I quote from the second edition, as issued in 1881.
 This is the theory which by many has alone been seen in Darwin's
_Descent of Man_. Thus even his friend Wallace states unconditionally
(_Tropical Nature_, p. 193) that Darwin accepted a "voluntary or conscious
sexual selection," and seems to repeat the same statement in _Darwinism_
(1889), p. 283. Lloyd Morgan, in his discussion of the pairing instinct in
_Habit and Instinct_ (1896), seems also only to see this side of Darwin's
 In his _Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication_, Darwin
was puzzled by the fact that, in captivity, animals often copulate without
conceiving and failed to connect that fact with the processes behind his
own theory of sexual selection.
 Beaunis, _Sensations Internes_, ch. v, "Besoins Sexuels," 1889. It
may be noted that many years earlier Burdach (in his _Physiologie als
Erfahrungswissenschaft_, 1826) had recognized that the activity of the
male favored procreation, and that mental and physical excitement seemed
to have the same effect in the female also.
 It is scarcely necessary to point out that this is too extreme a
position. As J.G. Millais remarks of ducks (_Natural History of British
Ducks_, p. 45), in courtship "success in winning the admiration of the
female is rather a matter of persistent and active attention than physical
force," though the males occasionally fight over the female. The ruff
(_Machetes pugnax_) is a pugnacious bird, as his name indicates. Yet, the
reeve, the female of this species, is, as E. Selous shows ("Sexual
Selection in Birds," _Zooelogist_, Feb. and May, 1907), completely mistress
of the situation. "She seems the plain and unconcerned little mistress of
a numerous and handsome seraglio, each member of which, however he flounce
and bounce, can only wait to be chosen." Any fighting among the males is
only incidental and is not a factor in selection. Moreover, as R. Mueller
points out (loc. cit., p. 290), fighting would not usually attain the end
desired, for if the males expend their time and strength in a serious
combat they merely afford a third less pugnacious male a better
opportunity of running off with the prize.
 L. Tillier, _L'Instinct Sexuel_, 1889, pp. 74, 118, 119, 124 et seq.,
 K. Groos, _Die Spiele der Thiere_, 1896; _Die Spiele der Menschen_,
1899; both are translated into English.
 Prof. H.E. Ziegler, in a private letter to Professor Groos, _Spiele
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