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 C. Lloyd Morgan, "Instinct and Intelligence in Animals," _Nature_,
February 3, 1898.
 _Essais_, livre iii, ch. v.
 Fere, "La Predisposition dans l'etiologie des perversions sexuelles,"
_Revue de medecine_, 1898. In his more recent work on the evolution and
dissolution of the sexual instinct Fere perhaps slightly modified his
position by stating that "the sexual appetite is, above all, a general
need of the organism based on a sensation of fullness, a sort of need of
evacuation," _L'Instinct sexuel_, 1899, p. 6. Loewenfeld (_Ueber die
Sexuelle Konstitution_, p. 30) gives a qualified acceptance to the
excretory theory, as also Rohleder (_Die Zeugung beim Menschen_, p. 25).
 Goltz, _Centralblatt fuer die med. Wissenschaften_, 1865, No. 19, and
1866, No. 18; also _Beitraege zur Lehre von den Funktionen des Frosches_,
Berlin, 1869, p. 20.
 J. Tarchanoff, "Zur Physiologie des Geschlechtsapparatus des
Frosches," _Archiv fuer die Gesammte Physiologie_, 1887, vol. xl, p. 330.
 E. Steinach, "Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Physiologie der
maennlicher Geschlechtsorgane insbesondere der accessorischen
Geschlechtsdruesen," _Archiv fuer die Gesammte Physiologie_, vol. lvi,
1894, pp. 304-338.
 See, e.g., Shattock and Seligmann, "The Acquirement of Secondary
Sexual Characters," _Proceedings of the Royal Society_, vol. lxxiii, 1904,
 For facts bearing on this point, see Guinard, art. "Castration,"
Richet's _Dictionnaire de Physiologie_. The general results of castration
are summarized by Robert Mueller in ch. vii of his _Sexualbiologie_; also
by F.H.A. Marshall, _The Physiology of Reproduction_, ch, ix; see also E.
Pittard, "Les Skoptzy," _L'Anthropologie_, 1903, p. 463.
 For an ancient discussion of this point, see Schurig, _Spermatologia_,
1720, cap. ix.
 J.J. Matignon, _Superstition, Crime, et Misere en Chine_, "Les
Eunuques du Palais Imperial de Pekin," 1901.
 P. Marie, "Eunuchisme et Erotisme," _Nouvelle Iconographie de la
Salpetriere_, 1906, No. 5, and _Progres medical_, Jan. 26, 1907.
 _Pedagogical Seminary_, July, 1897, p. 121.
 See, for instance, the case reported in another volume of these
_Studies_ ("Sexual Inversion"), in which castration was performed on a
sexual invert without effecting any change.
 Guinard, art. "Castration," _Dictionnaire de Physiologie_.
 M.A. Colman, _Medical Standard_, August, 1895; Clara Barrus,
_American Journal of Insanity_, April, 1895; Macnaughton-Jones, _British
Gynaecological Journal_, August, 1902; W.G. Bridgman, _Medical Standard_,
1896; J.M. Cotterill, _British Medical Journal_, April 7, 1900 (also
private communication); Paul F. Munde, _American Journal of Obstetrics_,
 See Swale Vincent, _Internal Secretion and the Ductless Glands_,
1912; F.H.A. Marshall, _The Physiology of Reproduction_, 1910, ch. ix;
Munzer, _Berliner klinische Wochenschrift_, Nov., 1910; C. Sajous, _The
Internal Secretions_, vol. i, 1911. The adrenal glands have been fully and
interestingly studied by Glynn, _Quarterly Journal of Medicine_, Jan.,
1912; the thyroid, by Ewan Waller, _Practitioner_, Aug., 1912; the
internal secretion of the ovary, by A. Louise McIlroy, _Proceedings Royal
Society Medicine_, July, 1912. For a discussion at the Neurology Section
of the British Medical Association Meeting, 1912, see _British Medical
Journal_, Nov. 16, 1912.
 Since this was written I have come across a passage in _Hampa_ (p.
228), by Rafael Salillas, the Spanish sociologist, which shows that the
analogy has been detected by the popular mind and been embodied in popular
language: "A significant anatomico-physiological concordance supposes a
resemblance between the mouth and the sexual organs of a woman, between
coitus and the ingestion of food, and between foods which do not require
mastication and the spermatic ejaculation; these representations find
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